Represents a pseudo-random number generator, a device that produces a sequence of numbers that meet certain statistical requirements for randomness.

See Also:
Random Members

## Syntax

[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]

public class **Random**

## Remarks

Pseudo-random numbers are chosen with equal probability from a finite set of numbers. The chosen numbers are not completely random because a definite mathematical algorithm is used to select them, but they are sufficiently random for practical purposes. The current implementation of the Random class is based on Donald E. Knuth's subtractive random number generator algorithm. For more information, see D. E. Knuth. "The Art of Computer Programming, volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms". Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, second edition, 1981.

The random number generation starts from a seed value. If the same seed is used repeatedly, the same series of numbers is generated. One way to produce different sequences is to make the seed value time-dependent, thereby producing a different series with each new instance of Random. By default, the parameterless constructor of the Random class uses the system clock to generate its seed value, while its parameterized constructor can take an int value based on the number of ticks in the current time. However, because the clock has finite resolution, using the parameterless constructor to create different Random objects in close succession creates random number generators that produce identical sequences of random numbers. The following example illustrates that two Random objects that are instantiated in close succession generate an identical series of random numbers.

code reference: System.Random#1

This problem can be avoided by creating a single Random object rather than multiple ones.

To improve performance, create one Random object to generate many random numbers over time, instead of repeatedly creating a new Random objects to generate one random number.

To generate a cryptographically secure random number suitable for creating a random password, for example, use a class derived from System.Security.Cryptography.RandomNumberGenerator such as System.Security.Cryptography.RNGCryptoServiceProvider.

## Thread Safety

All public static members of this type are safe for multithreaded operations. No instance members are guaranteed to be thread safe.

## Requirements

**Namespace: **System

**Assembly: **mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

**Assembly Versions: **1.0.5000.0, 2.0.0.0, 4.0.0.0